A Japanese Garden Experience in Manitoga

The renowned Scottish landscape architect and ecological planning pioneer Ian McHarg was once quoted as saying that if Manitoga was built in Japan, it would have been a “national monument.” “Japan has many such sites, but the United States has only Manitoga, the temple to managed succession, inspired ecological design.”

Manitoga in Garrison, New York  has since achieved that distinction and more. It is a National Historic Landmark, an Affiliate Site of the National Trust for Historic Conservation and a World Monuments Watch Site.  Officially known as the Manitoga/ The Russell Wright Design Center, it is a place still strongly animated by the vision of its original owner and creator, Midcentury modern designer Russell Wright whose work was strongly influenced by Japanese aesthetics, not least in the way he conceptualized his home / studio (Dragon Rock) and the woodland garden around it.

Wright’s Japanese connection apparently runs deeper than is commonly thought.  He also contributed to the cross-fertilization of American and Japanese sensibilities in Modernist aesthetics by serving as an adviser to the post-World War II Japanese government on handcraft design that would resonate with the US export market, according to Japanese Modernist design scholar Yuko Kikuchi.

In Manitoga, which Wright considers as a pinnacle of his career, the Japanese touch is everywhere evident and seamlessly integrated into his nature-centered instinct for design and even his taste for theatrics as a former theater set designer.  Dragon Rock is said to be reminiscent of Japanese temple architecture, as executed by architect David L. Leavitt with whom Wright shares a fondness for Japanese design. Leavitt has worked in Japan with the architect Antonin Raymond whose students include the Japanese architect Junzo Yoshimura, creator of the Shofuso Japanese House and Garden in Philadelphia and the traditional teahouse at the Japanese garden in Kykuit, the Rockefeller Estate, Tarrytown, New York.

While Dragon Rock has often been compared to the famous Fallingwater house of architect Frank Lloyd Wright (no relation), it seems to fall back more into the landscape, despite a name that’s evocative of a far more conspicuous presence.  From the green roofs — revolutionary for a structure built in the early 1950s — to the floor-to-ceiling windows and the tree trunk and natural boulders that define the interiors of the space, Wright was intent on blurring the boundaries between the outdoor and indoor spaces and synthesizing the natural with the man-made, a design sentiment that is also characteristically Japanese.  The name of the house itself, derived from the innocent fancy of Wright’s young daughter Annie who imagined a dragon shape in the rock formation, recalls the convention for naming rocks in a Japanese garden for mythical animals.

The great outdoors that Wright and Leavitt sought to bring in through this organic architecture is a 75-acre expanse that simultaneously evokes the experience of a stroll garden from Japan’s Edo Period (1603 – 1867) and taps into Wright’s penchant for drama as a former stage designer. Even as the house maximizes the view outside, the forest garden is also meant to be journeyed into.

fall-at-manitoga
Autumn in Manitoga

Here, the Japanese garden design principle of miegakure (hide and reveal) also becomes a device in Wright’s nature theater for building up a dramatic effect as one traverses through the path of the woodland garden.

Along each path, the landscape and its themes unfold sequentially. There is an introduction, a dramatic build-up, elaboration of a theme, and then a climax or a goal; the building of tension and its dramatic release – the whole design a musical composition.”     

A rock in the middle of the driveway, for example, slows movement and forces contemplation of the immediate surroundings. The sound of an unseen water feature at an entrance builds anticipation.

This theatricality also plays into the notion of a Japanese garden as an idealized re-creation or distillation of nature.  Landscape architect and Wright’s cousin Carol Franklin notes Wright’s manipulation of naturally occurring elements, particularly native plant species, to create the moments of denouement in the garden: a moss garden on top of the quarry pond, masses of mountain laurels and dogwoods in bloom, a fiery corridor of backlit autumn foliage.  Design historian D.J. Huppatz also speculated about Wright’s use of “borrowed scenery” (shakkei) to provide points of interest along the walking paths.

And then, there are the rocks. In the course of the 35 years since first acquiring the property as an abandoned granite quarry in 1942, Wright bided his time studying and working with the natural rock formations in the area to distill its essence as a “place of great spirit” (the English translation of “Manitoga,” an Algonquin word). A mountain stream was diverted and a 30-foot, multi-level waterfall created to form a swimming pond. There are also a variety of rock groupings and stepping stone paths found all over the property.  These rocks, ancient as they are in these parts, found a new purpose in the nexus of the natural and built environment in Manitoga.

Manitoga is part of the Garden Architecture Tour on October 7, 2016 co-hosted by the North American Japanese Garden Association and the Japan American Society of Greater Philadelphia. The tour is part of a two-day event on October 7 and 8, “Modernism, Japanese Carpentry and the Garden: Preserving the Architecture of Junzo Yoshimura.” For details and to register, visit http://najga.org/Philadelphia-2016


SOURCES:

Brown, Jane Roy, “Learning From Dragon Rock,” Landscape Architecture, Sept. 2005, https://www.asla.org/lamag/lam05/September/ecology.html 

Hobens, Barbara, “Philipstown Gardens: Inspirations from Manitoga,” The Highlands Current, April 2, 2011, http://highlandscurrent.com/2011/04/02/philipstown-gardens-4/

Huppatz, D.J., “Manitoga and Japan” http://djhuppatz.blogspot.com/2010/03/manitoga-and-japan.html

Kikuchi, Yuko, “Russell Wright and Japan: Bridging Japonisme and Good Design Through Craft,” The Journal of Modern Craft, Vol. 1 2008, Issue 3  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2752/174967808X379434?journalCode=rfmc20

Mendelsohn, Meredith, “Manitoga: Force of Nature,” Garden Design Magazine  http://www.gardendesign.com/new-york/garrison-manitoga.html

www.visitmanitoga.org

A Japanese Garden Experience in Manitoga

North American Japanese Garden Association To Host Philadelphia & New York Heritage Tour & Workshop

Two-Day Event Focus On Modernist and Traditional Japanese Design In the Garden

Philadelphia, PA – On October 7 and 8, the North American Japanese Garden Association (NAJGA) is teaming up with the Japan America Society of Greater Philadelphia (JASGP) to explore the adaptation and preservation of Modernist and traditional Japanese design in several garden settings found in New York and Philadelphia. NAJGA is a non-profit that promotes the art, craft and heart of Japanese gardens in USA and Canada.

The coach heritage tour on October 7 will feature prime examples of Japanese and Mid-century modern architecture in two garden estates: Kykuit at the Rockefeller estate in Tarrytown, New York with its century-old Japanese garden, and the Manitoga / The Russell Wright Design Center in Garrison, New York with its Japanese-influenced woodland garden. Also included with the tour registration is a box lunch and free admission to the Shofuso Japanese House and Garden in Philadelphia, which will be the assembly point for the tour.

“Autumn is one of the best times to be in a Japanese garden and as the leaves turn and fall away, we are better able to isolate and appreciate the architectural aspects of the garden, particularly the buildings that exist in its context,” says NAJGA board president and JASGP executive director Kim Andrews.

The work of revered Japanese architect Junzo Yoshimura will be a prime focus of this event. Aside from being the acclaimed designer of Shofuso, he also built a traditional teahouse for the Japanese garden in Kykuit. The tour will include a lecture about Yoshimura’s works as well as a viewing of the exterior of the Marcel Breuer House in Kykuit.

On October 8, Yoshimura’s legacy at Shofuso will be further scrutinized through the lenses of an ongoing heritage preservation project in a workshop that includes a Japanese carpentry demonstration, practicum on historic preservation reporting, and hinoki roof demonstration. Shofuso’s heritage preservation project aims to uphold Yoshimura’s rigorous standards for designing Shofuso using traditional Japanese design, and one of its most major components is the restoration of the roof made from the bark of the hinoki cypress. Heritage preservation experts and craftsmen skilled in traditional Japanese techniques will serve as lecturers and facilitators during the workshop.

“Our ongoing effort to meet the preservation challenges presented by Yoshimura’s uncompromising standards is also an excellent learning opportunity for everyone else interested in heritage conservation and the modern adaptation of traditional Japanese design,” says Andrews. “Knowing about how to properly report on conditions for heritage structures, for example, is a must for community custodians of these structures inside and outside the garden setting.”

The two-day event will be occurring during one of the busiest weeks in the Philadelphia design scene as it is also part of the 2016 DesignPhiladelphia festival (October 6 to 16), the oldest open-source event of its kind in the United States, and of the Docomomo US Tour Day 2016 (October 8), an annual event for raising awareness of and appreciation of buildings, interiors and landscapes designed in the US during the mid-20th century.

This event is open to the general public. To learn more and to register, visit http://najga.org/Philadelphia-2016.

North American Japanese Garden Association To Host Philadelphia & New York Heritage Tour & Workshop

“The Charm and Challenges of Garden Ponds” – Excerpts from the 2014-2015 NAJGA Journal

“The following articles include techniques for improving water quality, restoring shorelines and aquatic plants, adding to hardscape, repairing leaks, maintaining historic sensibility, and choosing the right construction materials.”

Water Quality Management in the Japanese Garden at Missouri Botanical Garden by Benjamin Chu

Missouri_Botanical_Garden_-_Seiwa-en

“Seiwa-en, the Japanese garden at Missouri Botanical Garden, has as its central focus, a four- and-a-half acre lake. The lake is an open system with a 113 acre watershed and an average depth of eleven feet. Given the area of the watershed, much of what enters the lake is of questionable quality, containing nutrient runoff from the surrounding landscape, the neighboring park, and oil and gas from the network of streets and paths….

Twenty-five years ago, we abandoned the traditional copper sulphate method of algae control…Our current management practice takes a more holistic approach using aeration , bio augmentation and algae elimination.”

————————————————————–

Shoreline Rejuvenation at the Chicago Botanic Garden’s Sansho-en by Robert Kirschner

Chicago Botanic Garden

“Scenic water vistas and diverse aquatic habitat are defining landscape elements throughout the Chicago Botanic Garden’s sixty-acre system of interconnected lakes. Beginning in 1999, the garden engaged in a systematic rejuvenation of its 5.7 miles of lake shoreline using innovative bioengineering techniques. These approaches rely heavily on dense stands of native vegetation to control erosion of fragile lakeshore soils, establish ecological diverse communities of native shoreline plants, enhance wildlife habitat, and demonstrate to visitors the importance of healthy lake ecosystems. To date, 4.5 miles (79%) of the garden’s lakeshore have been rejuvenated using 500,000 native shoreline plants. ”

———————————————————-

Shofuso Garden: Reclaimed from Tropical Storm Damage by Kim Andrews

Shofuso_Japanese_House_and_Garden

“In 2012, Friends of the Japanese House and Garden (FJHG) conducted a historic landscape restoration at the 1.2 acre Shofuso Japanese House and Garden in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to reinforce and restructure the pond banks and rebuild the hardscape that surrounds the pond. FJHG committed to using the 1957 garden plan by landscape architect Tansai Sano (also known as Uejyu Sano Taichiro, 1897-1966) as our guide. Sano’s 1957 garden at Shofuso was the first significant Japanese garden created in America after World War II and Shofuso’s garden is at the site of the first Japanese garden in North America in 1876.

During Tropical Storm Lee in September 2011, a collapsed storm drain inundated the pond with water, washing away some koi, damaging garden plantings like the specimen red pine on the island, and further deteriorating the pond banks and hardscape. A landscape and pond bank restoration was even more urgent.”

————————————————————–

At Hillwood Estate, Restoring & Preserving A Vision From the Past by Frances K. Vandenbroucke

Hillwood_Estate_10

“When Post Cereal heiress and General Foods founder Marjorie Merriwether Post (1887-1973) bought the Arbremont estate in northwest Washington, D.C. in 1955, she renamed it Hillwood and set about remaking the house and grounds….The task of transforming this space into a place of drama fell to Japanese-American landscape architect Shogo Myaida (1897-1988), from Long Island, New York….

After forty years, the Japanese-style garden was facing a multitude of problems. In 1996, a report by a Hillwood maintenance engineer described the breakdown of electrical and plumbing systems, with massive water leakage from all falls and pool areas. By 1999, daily water loss averaged 2,000 gallons from a pond that held approximately 10,000 gallons overall. Plantings were overgrown, many had died, and replacements were frequently not in keeping with Myaida’s design. Piecemeal repairs were no longer adequate; clearly a major intervention was necessary to avert catastrophic failure.

….The decision was made to restore the Japanese-style garden to Myaida’s design….On April 2, 2001, the fully restored Japanese-style garden opened to the public.”

——————————————————————-

Restoring the Taniguchi’s Flowing Water in Austin, Texas by Ed Parken 

Taniguchigarden

“As one enters the Taniguchi Japanese Garden, built on a rocky hillside at Zilker Botanical Garden in Austin, Texas, knowing its story is crucial for understanding and appreciating why it is one of Austin’s most treasured assets…..This three-acre tract of land was transformed into a peaceful, strolling garden by Isamu Taniguchi (1897-1992), a former California fruit farmer who was interned in World War II in Texas…

….The garden features a series of ponds and two of them spell out the word “AUSTIN” when viewed from above — an ideogram reflecting that this garden was a gift to the city of Austin. The first is the AU pond and the second is the STIN pond.

By 2010, there were severe leaks in both the ponds and the streams that connect them. The leaks wasted water, caused erosion, and required an inordinate amount of maintenance from the PARD (Parks and Recreation Department) staff. A three-phase project was initiated to provide a solution to the leaks….”

——————————————————————-

Anderson Japanese Gardens’ Cold Weather Challenge by Tim Gruner

Anderson_Gardens pond

“The Garden of Reflection pond at Anderson Japanese Gardens was built in 1999 on a site that was designed for large public gatherings. The pond covers approximately 20,000 square feet with a maximum depth of nine feet.

Many people are surprised to learn that the pond is lined with a three-inch layer of blacktop, also known as hot mix asphalt (HMA). As unusual as this may sound, HMA has been utilized for decades to line reservoirs used for retention of drinking water supplies and fish-rearing ponds. Initial concerns of toxic leachate that would be detrimental to aquatic life were unfounded; research has shown that once cured, asphalt is very stable, with virtually no toxic leaching into water systems.”

Read the full version of these articles in the 2014-2015 NAJGA Journal. The Journal is free to members of the North American Japanese Garden Association. To order additional copies or to order as a non-member, click HERE

“The Charm and Challenges of Garden Ponds” – Excerpts from the 2014-2015 NAJGA Journal